Same- or opposite-gender anal sex is illegal in Sudan. Penalty for the first-time constitute sodomy anal sex is 5 years of imprisonment, 7 years of imprisonment for the second time, and life imprisonment for the third time (this was the death penalty before 2020). Sexual acts that do not constitute acts of sodomy can fall under ‘gross indecency’ and are punishable with ‘not more than forty lashes and shall also be liable for imprisonment for a term which may not exceed one year or fine.’ However, the penalty practically only applies to the man/men participant(s). There are no documented cases of executions. Same-gender sexual activities are legal for women. Transgender people are not recognised in Sudan and authorities do not allow citizens to change their gender or name. In December 2008 Sudan was one of 60 countries to sign a Syrian-led statement at the United Nations opposing the initial statement made by the Netherlands which called for decriminalizing homosexuality. After partition of Sudan in 2011, President Salva Kiir Mayardit promised full democracy, equality and justice to all citizens but explicitly excluded homosexuals from this protection insisting that homosexuality was an imported idea.
Societal discrimination against LGBTQIA+ persons is widespread in Sudan. Vigilantes target suspected gay men, bisexuals and lesbians subject them to violent abuse. There were public demonstrations against homosexuality in Khartoum. In 2010 a group of 30 men in Khartoum were convicted of violating Sudan’s public morality codes for cross dressing, wearing make-up and dancing in a “womanly fashion” at a private party. They were arrested without presence of lawyers and no right to speak during the trial. They were sentenced to 30 lashes and a fine. In 2013, it was reported that a group of nine Sudanese men were arrested and beaten for being gay at the private flat of a well-known singer. In a survey (2019), only 17% of Sudanese said homosexuality is acceptable.
Freedom Sudan: The first LGBTQIA+ association of Sudan founded in 2006. However, no internet presence is seen from the group after 2013 on Facebook page. https://globalvoices.org/2010/01/24/sudans-first-lgbt-rights-organization/
Rainbow Sudan: A magazine has begun publishing articles in 2012 discussing topics including being gay in Sudan, the history of homosexuality in the country, Islam and sexuality, being lesbian and Muslim, poetry and more. https://rainbowsudan.wordpress.com/
Shades of Ebony SD:
Rise Initiative for Women's Right Advocacy: in South Sudan.
LGBTQIA+ individuals flee from the persecution and violence in their home country. Some leave for more tolerant African neighbouring countries such as Kenya and others have to flee to safer destinations in Europe or North America.